The Basics of Law


Law is a body of rules, standards and principles that govern the conduct of people in their relationships with others. The laws are created and enforced by a political authority, often a government. The law can be used to keep the peace, maintain the status quo, preserve individual rights, protect minorities against majorities, promote social justice and provide for orderly social change.

Legal Systems

Law differs from system to system. Some systems, such as a common law tradition, have long been established and codified. These systems are found in many countries around the world.

Constitutional law is a body of laws that form the legal framework of a nation, state, or other political entity and are designed to provide stability, security, and orderly conduct for citizens. They may also protect people from abuse or exploitation by others and help ensure a fair distribution of wealth.

Civil law is a collection of legal rules that govern the relationship between citizens and governments, businesses, and other entities. It covers areas such as property, contracts, and civil rights.

Criminal law deals with crimes such as murder and treason, and imposes penalties on the offender. In the United States, for example, capital offenses are punishable by death or life in prison.

Evidence law is the study of how evidence can be admitted into court for the purpose of proving or disproving a claim made by an allegation. It also deals with the process of trial and appeals.

Appeals are requests by parties to a lower court or tribunal to have another higher one review the case for a different interpretation of the law. They can be for a variety of reasons, such as the court’s improper procedure or the parties’ belief that their cases should have been heard differently.

Probation – A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which defendants are released under court supervision as long as certain conditions are observed. This is often available to low-income individuals who cannot afford a lawyer for the full term of their sentence.

Public defenders are attorneys who represent people accused of crimes who cannot afford to hire an attorney. These lawyers are usually part of the prosecutor’s office or other agencies.

Law spreads across the whole society, affecting everyone as they live their lives. It shapes their behavior and sense of right and wrong, and helps to provide them with a better way of living.

The Rule of Law is the basis of social justice and a key element of democracy. The Rule of Law requires that a society abide by a set of rules that are interpreted and applied to all individuals and institutions.

A person’s adherence to the law determines whether they will be treated well by other members of that society. The law should be clear and accessible so that citizens can understand it, and it should be stable enough to facilitate planning and coordination over time.

The Rule of Law is a set of rules that governs a society or country in response to a need for regularity, consistency and justice based on collective human experience. Its basic principles include a separation of powers, the principle of equality among all people, and the importance of the rule of law.